The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare comprises of following four Departments:
· Department of Health and Family Welfare
· Department of AYUSH
· Department of Health Research
· Department of AIDS control
National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) (launched on 12th April 2005)
It aims at providing affordable, accessible, and accountable health services to the poorest households in the remotest rural regions.
To establish a fully functional, community owned, decentralised health delivery system with inter sectoral convergence at all levels, to ensure simultaneous action on a wide range of determinants of health like water, sanitation, education, nutrition, social and gender equality.
Five pillars of the architectural corrections envisaged under NRHM:
i. Increasing Participation and Ownership by the Community
ii. Improved Management Capacity
iii. Flexible Financing
iv. Innovation in human resources development for the health sector
v. Setting of standards and norms with monitoring (Indian Public Heath Standards)
Progress under NRHM:
National Urban Health Mission (NUHM)
It addresses the needs of public health care services for urban population. It involves revamping/upgradation/ creation of primary, secondary and tertiary health care service delivery system in urban areas.
India accounts for only 2.4 % of the world’s area yet it supports more than 17.5% of the world’s population.
Total fertility rate has declined to 2.5 in 2009. 21 states have achieved replacement level fertility (i.e. 2.1) or less.
· Delivery of contraceptives at doorstep of beneficiaries
· Compensation scheme for sterilization acceptors
· National Family Planning Insurance Scheme
· Promoting spacing between births
Maternal Health Programmes
· Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) it is defined as maternal deaths per 1 lakh live births due to cause related to pregnancy or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, regardless of the site or duration of pregnancy. The national average of MMR is 212 per 100,000 live births. The scheme identified ASHA as a crucial link between health facility and the community.
· Janani Suraksha Yojana (a safe motherhood intervention under NRHM) was launched in 2005 to promote institutional deliveries among the poor pregnant women. JSY is a 100% centrally sponsored schemes.
· Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram It entitles all pregnant women delivering in public health institutions to absolutely free and no expense delivery, including caesarean section. The entitlement includes free drugs and consumables, free diagnostics and free blood wherever required. It also provides for free transport from home to institution. Free diet for 3 days in case or normal birth and 7 days in case of C-section
Child Health Programmes
India accounts for 22 per cent of the total number of under‑five deaths worldwide.
· Infant Mortality Rate: It is defined as the probability of dying before the first birthday. IMR for the country is 47 per 1000 births.
· Navjat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (NSSK): It is a programme aimed to train the heath personnel in the basic newborn care and resuscitation. The objective is to have trained health personnel in the Basic newborn care and resuscitation at every delivery point.
· Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act ,1994
· Mother and Child Tracking System (MCTS) It is an e-governance initiative of the Ministry. It is expected to bring down the IMR and MMR, as mandated by Goal 4 and 5 of the MDGs.
· Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) It is providing seven vaccination to prevent preventable diseases i.e. Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio, Measles, severe form of Childhood Tuberculosis and Heptitis B.